African Sulcata Tortoise

Let’s face it, most people don’t have the patience to deal with a pet tortoise. They’re messy, they’re slow, and if you’re not careful they can kill your dog or cat. They’re also delicate and dangerous. So, what’s a busy professional to do? Well, there’s no better candidate than the African Sulcata Tortoise. These gentle giants are hardy and docile, and they can live for more than 50 years if given the proper care.

African Sulcata Tortoises (also known as a sulcata tortoise) are a species of tortoise found in semi-arid grasslands, scrub, and savannah in northern Africa. They are highly adaptable and can live in a wide range of habitats, from dry desert to wet grasslands. But if you want them for a family pet you’ll need space for them to move.

While the African Sulcata Tortoises can be great pets, most families don’t realize how much space they need to house them. They grow to almost 3 feet long, so a small 10’x10’ pen just isn’t going to cut it. They don’t need too much else after you get their home set up, so if you have the space for them they can be great for your family!

an African Sulcata Tortoise walking through some grass

African Sulcata Information

  • Average Length: 24 to 30 inches
  • Average Weight: 80 to 110 pounds
  • Skin Appearance: Thick skin with bony plates on their shell
  • Skin Colors: Golden brown to sand color
  • Grooming Needs: Low
  • Shedding: Every few months
  • Sensitive to Touch: No
  • Biting Tendency: No
  • Good tolerance to Heat and Cold: No tolerance to cold.
  • Good Pet: Yes 
  • Safe with Children: Adult tortoises are too big for children
  • Good with Other Pets: No
  • Suitable to live in an Apartment: No
  • Suitable for First-Time Pet Owners: No
  • Weight Gain: Normal
  • Health Concerns: Respiratory Infections, Metabolic Bone Disease, Shell Rot and Pyramiding. 
  • Allergies: None
  • Average Life Span: 50 to 70 years
a African Sulcata Tortoise getting something to eat

Physical Appearance of African Sulcata Tortoises

Sulcata Tortoises are only around 2 inches long when they are born but they can grow up to 30 inches long! These tortoises double their size every 3 years and can weigh up to 110 pounds when fully matured. They are the third-largest land dwelling tortoises in the world.

They have a thick skin that can be one of several neutral colors ranging from golden brown to sand. The upper part of their shell, called the carapace, is brown. The carapace is oval and wide with large scales called scutes. These scutes have growth rings that increase like tree rings as the turtle ages. The scutes darken with age, giving the shell some texture and color variation.

The front legs of the tortoise are covered with large scales. They have several cone-shaped spurs on their thighs which is why they are sometimes called the Spurred Tortoise. These spurs are thought to help them burrow underground in the wild. They can also act as protection when the turtle retreats into its shell. The spurs cover the turtle’s head when it’s inside its shell.

Sulcata Tortoises have a moderately sized head with a flat snout. The upper jaw narrows to a point and then the end has a slight downward hooked appearance that is common among turtles. The head is brown with darker shades on the jaws.

Temperament of African Sulcata Tortoises

Sulcata Tortoises spend most of their time grazing and burrowing. If the temperature gets too hot they generally like to find a hiding spot to escape the heat. They may sometimes rub their saliva on their forearms to cool themselves.

They are most active during dusk and dawn. Young tortoises tend to be more active than mature tortoises.

Male Sulcata Tortoises are aggressive with each other. They may hit or try to flip each other to show their dominance. In the wild this is a death sentence for them because they are not able to right themselves once they’re on their back. This is why we recommend that they be housed alone. Females are generally less aggressive than males but it is still unpredictable how they will react to each other. 

Some tortoises will enter a state of Brumation in the colder periods. This is like hibernation, but for reptiles, and lasts much less time than hibernation does for mammals. African Sulcata Tortoises DO NOT DO THIS. We will list their ideal habitat conditions later in the article. If your tortoise gets too cold and refuses to eat or move this is NOT NORMAL and they must be warmed up quickly or they will die.

Sulcata Tortoises do not like being handled. Both young and older tortoises can get stressed with frequent handling. 

Their Compatibility with Children

a African Sulcata Tortoise cooling off on some flat rocks

Children may handle the tortoises gently when the Sulcata Tortoises are young. The handling should not be frequent because it can stress the tortoise. Teach your children how to handle the tortoise. Always have an adult supervise the children while they are handling them because children may accidentally drop or do things that can cause them stress.

Always have your children wash their hands after handling the tortoise. This is because most tortoises are carriers of infectious bacteria like Salmonella which can cause diarrhea, fever, and abdominal pain in humans. Washing their hands should prevent your children from contracting bacterial and fungal diseases from the tortoises. Children below 5 should not handle tortoises because young children are at an increased risk of contracting Salmonella.

Adult tortoises get very big, and can sometimes become aggressive for a number of reasons. It’s best to only have children around adult tortoises with adult supervision especially if they are feeding them. Many unintentional bitings happen while feeding the tortoises.

a African Sulcata Tortoise walking up to some wild flowers

Living Space for African Sulcata Tortoises

The best place to keep African Sulcata Tortoises is outdoors. Their large size necessitates them having a large enclosure which will be hard to create indoors. The more space you can give them, the better. Lack of suitable space is the main reason why many families cannot have these animals as pets.

You may house young Sulcata Tortoises indoors for a few years when you first get them home. A large fish tank can be useful for keeping your young pet, but they will quickly grow too big for such a small home. 

Once they become big, an outdoor enclosure should be set up for them. The enclosure should be large enough for some hiding spots, a basking area and still allow them to move around. It should be properly secured with a fence at least 2 feet tall. A fence that can handle some of the tortoises’ weight without falling apart is needed. It’s not uncommon for them to use their weight to crush the fence and escape.

Sulcata Tortoises love to dig and may try to dig an escape tunnel. By extending the fence 12 inches below the surface you can make it more difficult for them to dig out. They will also dig to escape the hot summer heat. Usually they will not dig more than about 30 inches, but in the wild they have dug holes 10 feet into the ground!

While setting up their enclosure, remember not to create areas that they can use to climb. Sulcata Tortoises like to climb and may accidentally tip over trying to climb on something.

If you live where the temperature drops below 63 degrees, your tortoise will need a heated enclosure to protect them from the cold. As mentioned before they need hiding or shaded spots to keep from overheating. A heated enclosure is really just another hiding spot for them.

The Sulcata Tortoise does need some shad. If the enclosure you’ve set up does not include any natural shaded spots, umbrellas or a canopy work well to block the sun. Remember though that Sulcata Tortoises are ravenous vegetarians, and a bush providing shade today might be a meal for them tomorrow.  In addition to having a nice shaded spot for them, the ground is often cooler 12 inches below the surface. If there is a particular place that you want them to rest at you may want to dig them a hole while setting everything up.

Without a hiding spot, Sulcata Tortoise may start digging to escape the heat. If you do dig them a hole, dig a few extra inches down and place flagstones to stop Sulcata Tortoises from digging further. Then cover this up with a few inches of dirt on top. This should keep them from digging a 10 foot hole in your yard.

On hot days a muddy pit should be created to allow your tortoises to soak themselves. The pit will also give them an area to defecate in.

Substrate

The substrate should be made from a mixture of soil and sand. Sulcata Tortoises are active grazers, plants and grass should be added for them inside their enclosure. Be aware that because of how they eat, they will eventually eat all the plants in their enclosure down to the roots.

a African Sulcata Tortoise resting in the grass

Best Climate for African Sulcata Tortoises

For hatchlings kept indoors, standard reptile heating bulbs will help you maintain the required temperature. African Sulcata Tortoises need a daytime temperature range of 90 to 100°F. The night time temperature can range from 60 to 80°F. If the temperature in your area gets lower than this, then a heating source should be added inside their enclosure. 

A heating lamp should be added to give them a warm area. Securely place the heating lamp at a height so that the tortoises cannot touch them. You don’t want  them accidentally burning their skin. 

a African Sulcata Tortoise hatching from its shell

Outdoor housed tortoises do not need additional lighting sources. Baby tortoises kept indoors should be kept on a regular day-night lighting cycle. Tortoises kept indoors will also need UVA/UVB lighting in their enclosure to keep them healthy.

Sulcata Tortoises need humidity in the range of 40 to 55 percent. If you stay in an area where the humidity is lower than this, a humidifier may be needed.   

The Attention an African Sulcata Tortoise Needs

You can handle Sulcata Tortoises gently when they are young. Handling them more than a few times a week can stress your tortoises. 

While it takes them about 15 years to fully mature, Sulcata Tortoises grow relatively fast. After a few years of growing they will become too big for you to lift. Since most don’t like to be lifted anyways, this is not a bad thing. 

Adult tortoises are solitary and will do fine without you regularly interacting with them. They will still need your care and attention maintaining their enclosure, and they don’t seem to mind friendly interactions with people. 

The large size and weight of the Sulcata Tortoises requires expert care. They need to be given a large enclosure that is secured to prevent them from escaping. Maintaining the correct temperature, humidity and lighting conditions is also very important. Sulcata Tortoises live a long time, up to 150 years, which makes them a lifetime commitment.

If you cannot maintain the required living conditions or devote enough time to caring for them then they may not be a good pet for you and your family. Without proper care they will get sick and won’t live as long.

Health Issues

Metabolic Bone Disease (MBD)

MBD is a common health issue that tortoises can have. MBD results in the deformation or softening of their shell and bones. The major cause of the diseases is lack of calcium or Vitamin D and high-phosphorus levels in their body. Quite often this is due to dietary deficiencies, inadequate exposure to sunlight or poor living conditions. Symptoms include:

  • Leathery or rubbery shell
  • Raised scutes
  • Deformed jaws
  • Weak or deformed limbs
  • Paralysis

If the disease is mild and your tortoise is still eating, you can feed your tortoise high calcium foods and supplementing their diet with calcium powder. They should also be exposed to unfiltered sunlight or UVB lighting. In serious cases the tortoise will stop eating and have very soft shells. Consult your vet if you suspect they have any of the above symptoms.

Pyramiding

Pyramiding is a health issue similar to MBD. As the name suggests pyramiding results in piling up of the scutes. The bone behind the scute also gets deformed. A high protein diet and problems that result in MBD are generally what contributes to pyramiding. Sulcata Tortoises are vegetarians and do not need meat or any additional protein beyond whatever is in a grassy or leafy diet. Early signs of pyramiding include thick growth rings or depression in their scutes.

a African Sulcata Tortoise walking through its enclosure

It is important to know that pyramiding cannot be treated. Treatment is only limited to limit the further growth of pyramiding. It is fortunate for your tortoise that pyramiding is just an aesthetic issue and does not seem to affect their normal life. Following the preventive measures for MBD will reduce the chances of your Sulcata Tortoises getting this disease. 

Respiratory Issues

Humid or cold conditions can cause respiratory issues in Sulcata Tortoises. Signs include:

  • Lethargy 
  • Nasal discharge
  • Labored breathing
  • Weight loss
  • Wheezing
a young African Sulcata Tortoise walking over some small rocks

Tortoises with respiratory infections will avoid eating. A thorough examination by your vet will help identify the cause of the infection and treat your tortoise. They will generally prescribe antibiotics, either by giving it through injection or telling you how to administer it orally to your tortoise. 

Sometimes your vet may recommend keeping them indoors under full-spectrum UVB lighting until they get well. For many it can be difficult to confine your Tortoise in an indoor enclosure with the optimal conditions. Ideally you’ll find a way to partition off part of their enclosure and give them what they need to help them recover quickly.

The best way to keep Sulcata Tortoises from getting the disease is to maintain the temperature and humidity they need.

Shell Rot

Shell Rot is a bacterial infection that can infect the blood vessels in the shell of your Sulcata Tortoise. The disease will cause small holes or look like something has been chewing on their shell. Soft spots on the shell or bloody discharge are very common. In serious cases the scutes may entirely fall off which will expose the bones and nerves that were protected by the shell.

Poor living conditions are what generally cause the growth of bacteria and cause Shell Rot. The disease can take a long time to heal. Antibiotics and regular cleaning are usually the recommended treatments. The best way to prevent this disease is to keep their enclosure clean and maintain the temperature inside their enclosure.

Grooming and Care

Most tortoises like to soak themselves in water, so a water pit or a large vessel should be kept inside their enclosure. Most will use a plastic tub that is large enough for your tortoise to fit. You’ll want to make it easy for the tortoise to get in and out of the tank so they don’t get stuck. Fill the tub with water up to a few inches. Soaking them 2 to 3 times a week should be enough, but let them soak as often as they want. 

Tortoises are known to defecate inside the tub while they are soaking themselves. The tub will need to be Thoroughly disinfected after they are done soaking. Washing your hands is very important and should help prevent you from getting harmful bacteria like Salmonella.

The living enclosure of your tortoises will help wear down their nails, so there should be no need to trim their nails. If you find their nails are growing too long, you can contact your vet for advice.

Regularly check their shell and skin for signs of diseases like Metabolic Bone Disease or Shell Rot. If you can see signs of infection, check the enclosure climate and make sure everything is correct. Consult your vet for the best advice. 

Feeding A African Sulcata Tortoise

African Sulcata Tortoises are herbivores. They need to be given a diet that is high in fiber and low in protein. Grasses and hays should make up 75 percent of their diet. Edible weeds and flowers are also good foods for them. They can be given dandelions, endives, cactus pads or clover. Leafy green vegetables can also be fed in moderation. Something most people don’t know is that Sulcata Tortoises really love cacti! You’ll need to remove any of the needles because that can really hurt them.

They like to graze so adding plants and grass inside their enclosure will give them access to food anytime they want. Sulcata Tortoises will feed on ANYTHING that they find growing in their enclosure. They are considered ravenous feeders and will eat any plant in their enclosure to the root, just a word of caution.

a pile of mealworms ready to be fed do a reptile

Avoid giving them food that is high in oxalates like spinach, beet greens, broccoli, cauliflower, mustard and kale. High amounts of oxalates can cause kidney problems. Fruits can be fed to them, but it should be a rare treat and not a food they eat more than 1 – 2 times a week. Animal protein and pellet food should never be fed to them.

Sulcata Tortoises mostly stay hydrated from the food they eat but a water bowl should still be kept inside their enclosure. Sometimes they have been known to drink a fair amount of water, especially on hotter days. The water bowl should be cleaned and refilled daily.

Sulcata Tortoises are attracted to bright colors. If you have any plastic or glass in their enclosure they may try to eat it. If you can try to give them some brightly colored foods because they seem to enjoy it more, especially carrots.

It’s a good idea to not have their food placed on dirt or rocks because there is a good chance that they will eat some dirt or rocks with their food. Consult your vet if you have any questions about the right type of food that should be fed to your Sulcata Tortoise.

Related Questions:

Are Sulcata Tortoises endangered species?

African Sulcata Tortoises are not currently endangered. They are listed as vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). What this means is that they are likely to become endangered. The reduction in the wildlife population of Sulcata Tortoises is because of the loss of their natural habitat. 

Over-capturing of Sulcata Tortoises from the wild for the pet trade is a major contributor to the tortoise becoming vulnerable. To avoid contributing to their situation, always ask your breeder if the tortoise you are buying is wild-caught.

Are Sulcata Tortoises attracted towards bright colors?

Sulcata tortoises are generally attracted to anything brightly colored. They may try to break through barriers and fences in an attempt to get to something that is bright. Avoid keeping toys or anything else that is bright and harmful in their enclosure. Sulcata Tortoises may try to eat them which can cause serious health issues. 

Do Sulcata Tortoises shed?

Like most reptiles, tortoises shed their skin as they grow. They do not shed their skin all at once but in pieces. While shedding the skin or parts of their body will have a flaky or whitish area. Sulcata Tortoises will generally shed their skin without needing any help. Avoid peeling of the skin because it can cause infections or bleeding.

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