a Pomeranian standing outside that looks like they have a smile on their face

Pomeranians are a small dog breed that have become increasingly popular as family pets in recent years. They are known for their fluffy coats, outgoing personalities, and intelligence.

These dogs are part of the Spitz family, which includes breeds such as the Samoyed, Keeshond, and American Eskimo Dog. Pomeranians were originally bred to be working dogs, but have since become companion dogs.

Pomeranians are a great choice for first-time dog owners due to their small size and easy-going nature. They typically weigh between 3 and 7 pounds, making them one of the smallest breeds of dog. Despite their size, they are full of energy and love to play. They also have an outgoing personality that makes them great companions.

Pomeranians are small dogs that are independent and always active. They are often called Poms by their owners. Poms belong to the Spitz family that originated from the Arctic regions. They are the smallest among the Spitz family. Though Poms are small they seem to have the personality and confidence of a large dog. They are not shy to bark or act aggressively with dogs much larger than they are.

Pomeranian Puppies are small, fluffy, and sweet. They are known for being high-energy dogs that love to play and jump. They are also very friendly and outgoing, and will make friends with anyone. 

Pomeranians are very intelligent and can easily learn tricks. They are also very agile and athletic, making them a good choice for active families. They also tend to be very vocal, and will bark at strangers and other dogs. They are very independent and will need a lot of exercise and mental stimulation. 

Pomeranians are very loyal and will follow you everywhere. They are also very affectionate and will give you a big hug whenever you come home. They are also very smart and can be taught tricks. 

Their personalities are very like those of humans, and they will form strong bonds with their family. They are also very loving and gentle, and will make wonderful companions for older children. 

Pomeranians are an extremely versatile breed, and will suit any lifestyle. They are very adaptable, and will thrive in apartments, condos, and even tiny houses. They are also very quiet, so they won’t disturb neighbors. They are also very low maintenance, and require minimal grooming.

Pomeranians are generally healthy dogs with an average lifespan of 12-16 years. However, they can be prone to certain health issues such as eye problems, heart disease, and hypoglycemia. It is important to keep up with regular vet visits to ensure your Pomeranian is healthy and happy.

Overall, Pomeranians are a great choice for first-time dog owners. They are small, intelligent, and full of personality. With proper care and training, they can be wonderful companions for years to come.

Pomeranian Information

  • Average Height: 6 to 7 inches
  • Average Length: 9.5 to 11 inches
  • Average Weight: 3.5 to 8 pounds
  • Coat Type: Double long length
  • Coat Appearance: They have a double-coat with a thick, soft, and fluffy undercoat. The outer coat is long, straight, and has a dry texture
  • Coat Colors: Black and tan, blue brindle, chocolate, cream sable, and beaver
  • Grooming Needs: Medium
  • Shedding: Moderate Shedding
  • Brushing Requirements: They need to be brushed twice a week.
  • Sensitive to Touch: Moderate
  • Excessive Barking: Yes
  • Tolerance to Heat and Cold: No, they are sensitive to heat.
  • Good Pet: Yes! They are quite friendly and make good pets.
  • Safe with Children: Because they are small, we don’t recommend them for families with younger children
  • Good with Other Dogs: Moderate
  • Good with Other Pets: Moderate
  • Suitable to live in an Apartment: Yes
  • Good for Less Experienced Pet Owners: Yes but needs patience to be trained
  • Training: They are difficult to train and you need to be firm and consistent
  • Exercise Needs: Medium 
  • Weight Gain: Low
  • Health Concerns: Epilepsy, eye problems, hip dysplasia, Legg-Perthes disease, patellar luxation, collapsed trachea, and dental problems.
  • Allergies: They can suffer from contact and food allergies.
  • Average Life Span: 12 to 16 years

Physical Appearance of Pomeranians

a Pomeranian with a dark snout sitting outside and looking at something above it

Pomeranians have a compact and square body with a short back. They have a wedge-shaped head which somewhat resembles a fox’s face. Their chest stands out as if they were a lion auditioning for a role in the Lion king. Their chest sticks out almost as far as their face and slopes back towards their elbow. Their tail is fluffy and curls up and lays flat on their back.

They have a short black snout. Their ears are small and stand erect. Poms have medium-sized, black almond-shaped eyes.

Pomeranians have a double coat that covers their body with a thick layer of hair. The undercoat is thick, soft, and fluffy while the outer coat is straight, long, and shiny. The coat on their legs and head is tight and shorter than the rest of their fur. A Pomeranian’s coat around the neck and chest is long and fluffy.

Their coat can be a variety of colors like black and tan, blue brindle, chocolate, cream sable, and beaver. These are just some of the more common colors that they can be. Their coat can be almost any color you can imagine, and the American Kennel Club (AKC) recognises all of them. The eyes and snout of all Pomeranians are black, except for Pomeranians with beaver, blue, and chocolate colored coats. For these few color patterns mentioned their eyes and snout are the same color as their fur.

Temperament of Pomeranians

Pomeranians are lively, playful, and loyal to their owners. They are also independent and intelligent, something that can be both good and bad depending on the situation.

They are generally friendly with their family but can act aggressive with new people and other pets. Though they are small, they have the personality of a big dog. Their large dog personality can cause them to act aggressively with other dogs, even larger dogs. Early socialization training is necessary to help reduce aggression towards strangers and other pets.

Pomeranians are very alert dogs and always curious to know what is happening around them. Their alertness helps them be great watchdogs. At the same time they are known for barking very loudly when they see strangers. This is where the socialization training will help.

Training a Pomeranian

a cute Pomeranian sitting on the floor and looking at the person taking their picture

Poms are smart and intelligent which usually helps when training them. Poms are also known for acting stubborn if not trained early on. Housetraining Poms can sometimes be a challenge, and this is why we recommend puppy training early.

Clicker Training – Puppy Training

Pomeranians are known to misbehave, especially as puppies. They need to be trained to understand what is good behavior and what is not OK. Clicker training will help them understand what is good behavior. Clicker training has you make a noise with the clicker when the desired action is done. In addition to the click you’ll give them a treat, at least while you train them. Every time your dog hears the click they’ll know they did a good job and you are happy.

If your dog misbehaves, try not to punish them because it can discourage them. Instead, remember the clicker training and divert their attention to something else. You might have to do this several times to make the Yorkie understand that they are not supposed to do the undesired activities.

Kennel Training

Kennel training works very well with Pomeranians. If done right they will see the kennel as their safe space, and a place that they can relax and sleep. Most dogs enjoy small spaces and will find a sense of security while inside it. Getting them comfortable in a kennel early on will save you a lot of headaches. You know that they can’t get into trouble while you’re sleeping or at work if they’re in their kennel. It’s also a great place for them to dry off after they come into the house when it’s wet outside.

Obedience Training Classes

a Pomeranian puppy sitting outside near a brick wall

Obedience training classes are a great way to help your dog learn some basic instructions. Obedience training isn’t just for your dog, it also helps owners learn to teach and control their new dog. These classes can teach you as an owner the best ways to teach your puppy. The amount of time you spend trying to stop your Sheltie’s excessive barking can be a lot less if you know the best way to teach them. Because Pomeranians love barking, with or without obedience training you will likely spend a good deal of time teaching them to be quiet.

You need to be firm and consistent while training them. Given their stubborn personality, you will need a lot of patience.

As puppies they will have short attention spans, to keep them interested you will need to keep the training sessions short and fun. Giving them treats and lots of praise during your training sessions will help keep their focus on the training.

Early on you will want to teach them how to follow the basic commands like Sit, Stay and Come. Since they are known to bark loudly when they see strangers or other dogs, it is important to teach them to be quiet.

Getting them used to walking on a leash shouldn’t be too difficult. They are aggressive and curious and will need to be kept on a leash when you take them out for walks or to the park. Until they reliably listen to commands when strangers are around you’ll want to keep them on a leash in public.

Early Socialization Training

Early socialization is absolutely necessary for Poms. They need exposure to different sounds, places, people, other dogs, and pets right when they are a puppy. By being exposed to so many things it will help interact more confidently with others and not be so skittish or aggressive with strangers or other dogs.

Their Compatibility with Children

a Pomeranian running through a field of flowers

Poms are active and love to play. Because of their small size they are best suited for families that have older children. This is because older children are mature and capable of handling Poms. Their small size may make it more difficult for younger children to safely carry your Pomeranians and end up hurting them.

You should teach your kids the best ways to interact with Poms. Children should not disturb any pets when they are eating because they might get bit because your dog thinks their food is being taken away. Until you know how your children and new puppy will react its best to have an adult supervise their interactions. Supervision is the best way to prevent accidents from occurring.

Best Climate for Pomeranians

Pomeranians are more comfortable in cold weather than in hot weather. Their thick coat lets them stay warm outside for a while, even in snow. If the temperature is around 40 degrees, your Pom will not have a problem staying outside for a few hours.

Because they are toy breeds and companion dogs, they are not considered outside dogs. They are comfortable living inside the home at room temperatures and shouldn’t be kept outside for too long.

Poms are very sensitive to heat, and excessive heat and humidity can cause your Pom to become overheated. Too much heat and humidity can even lead to heatstroke. You may need to turn on the air conditioner if the temperature outside gets too hot. They should always have enough water to help them keep cool during the summer. Water will help keep them hydrated and cooler in the hot summer heat.

The Attention a Pomeranian Needs

Poms enjoy spending time with their family. They love being the center of attention. Frequent cuddles and lap time is what they crave. Teaching them new tricks and playing with them is a great way to bond with them.

These dogs are small but have lots of energy. They enjoy going for walks or playing with their owners. Exercising them daily will help keep them in shape and maintain their physical and mental needs.

They love the company of family and should not be left alone for too long. If they go for too long without being around family they can develop separation anxiety.

Health Issues

Pomeranians can have a few health conditions. This includes dental conditions like teeth and gum problems.

Poms are known for having different types of eye problems like cataracts, dry eye, and tear duct problems. These diseases need to be treated early on, otherwise, it can lead to blindness. If you find excessive tearing, redness, or scarring in the eyes then you should take them to your vet.

Hip Dysplasia

Hip dysplasia is a hereditary problem that can make walking, getting up or laying down difficult and painful. When a dog has hip dysplasia, their hip socket fails to fully cover the ball portion of their thigh bone. The looseness between the hip and leg bone leads to partial or complete dislocation of their hip joint and can cause pain and stiffness. In most cases, medication and exercise restrictions are advised by the vet. Over time the condition could become severe enough that your vet might recommend surgery to correct it.

Legg-Perthes Disease

Canine Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (LCPD) is a condition affecting a dog’s hip joints. It’s caused by a decrease in blood supply to the top part of their femur, causing it to break down and become necrotic. This can lead to pain and lameness in the affected limb.

The exact cause of LCPD is unclear, however it may be due to an abnormality in their blood supply to the hip joint or a genetic predisposition. It’s most commonly seen in small dog breeds and can occur at any age.

The prognosis for dogs with LCPD depends on the stage of the condition and the individual dog. If caught early and treated properly, most dogs can make a full recovery. However, some dogs will need lifelong management to prevent disease recurrence or progression.

Patellar Luxation

Patellar luxation is another joint problem that dogs can develop. Patellar luxation happens when the knee joint slides in and out of place. This can be painful for some, and can cause lameness or abnormal walking. Dogs with this problem will usually hop or skip a few steps while walking. Patellar luxation can be painful for some but most will be able to live normally even after having this condition. The disease can lead to arthritis. 

Depending upon the severity of their disease, surgery could be needed to treat patellar luxation. This problem seems to affect smaller dogs more than larger dogs.

Collapsed trachea

Collapsed trachea is a condition that causes a dog’s windpipe, or trachea to collapse. This condition is usually caused by the cartilage rings weakening that normally help keep the trachea open. This weakening can be due to genetics, obesity or other medical conditions such as heart disease or respiratory infections. Signs of collapsed trachea include a dry, “honking” cough, breathing difficulty, and exercise intolerance. If you think that your dog has a collapsed trachea, please contact your veterinarian for evaluation and treatment.

Symptoms of Canine Collapsed Trachea

The most common symptom of collapsed trachea is a dry, honking cough. This type of cough is typically worse after exercise or excitement and can be heard from a distance. Other signs include:

  • Difficulty breathing especially during exercise
  • Intolerance to physical activity

Periodontal Disease

Domesticated cats and dogs can get periodontal disease if their oral health is not taken care of. Periodontal disease is a tooth and gum condition that can become serious in a few ways. One of the biggest problems is that this disease can destroy the gums and teeth of your pet if left untreated.

Another major problem if the bacteria in the mouth enters the bloodstream. Plaque build-up in the mouth can damage the gums and let bacteria enter the bloodstream. If this happens it can cause kidney and liver diseases and narrow their blood vessels which can lead to heart problems.

One of the easiest ways to prevent periodontal disease is to regularly brush your pet’s teeth. More than likely they won’t like it, but regular brushing is the best way you can prevent plaque buildup in your pets mouth.

Other minor health conditions

Other minor health conditions that they can suffer from are contact and food allergies. If your Pomeranian is frequently rubbing their face or licking the paws they could possibly be having an allergy. Get them checked with a vet to provide them necessary treatment.

Bathing, Coat, and Cleaning

2 young Pomeranians sitting outside and looking at something

Pomeranians have a thick and rich coat that needs moderate maintenance. They need to be brushed twice a week. A wire slicker brush and a metal comb work well to gently brush and clean their coat. The right brushes will help pull the loose hair and remove mats or tangles. Because they have a double coat, they need to be carefully brushed all the way down to their skin to remove the loose fur.

You can bathe them once a month or when required. Use only a high-quality dog shampoo and conditioner to bathe them. If you are using a bathtub make sure you keep the water below the knees, or they may get scared or irritated. Before bathing them it’s best if you can remove all the tangles and matting in their fur. Washing them with mattings can cause the mattings to tighten and pull their skin as you wash or dry them.

Trim their nails once a week. This will help prevent damage to your floor, and make it easier for them to walk on hard surfaces.

Check their teeth often because Poms are known for having dental problems. If you see any signs of plaque build up or smell any bad odors take them to your vet and have them checked out.

Every week it is important to check their nose, paws, and other areas of your dog while brushing them for signs of redness or other infections. If you see any signs of infection, call your vet immediately.

Feeding A Pomeranian

a close up of a pile of dog food

Pomeranians need ¼ to ½ cups of high-quality dog food a day, split between two feedings. The exact amount of food that your Pom needs will depend upon how active your dog is. Don’t leave food out in the open so your dog can eat it whenever they want. If they don’t eat it all after it is put out, put the food away until the next scheduled feeding time.

Normally Poms don’t eat enough to become overweight but you should always watch out for weight gains and adjust how much they are fed. Because they are small, it doesn’t take much extra food to cause them to gain weight. People food is the main reason most dogs gain unwanted weight. It’s why we discourage people from feeding people food to animals.

Related Questions:

How did Pomeranians Originate?

Pomeranians are named after the Pomerania region, an area in Northern Europe between Germany and northern Poland along the Baltic Sea. They trace their origins from the large working Wolfspitz dogs of Arctic regions. Pomeranians are descendants of the German Spitz dogs and have a long history of crossbreeding. Pomeranians became popular in the 19th century when Queen Victoria showed them for the first time in 1861. The American Kennel Club (AKC) recognized Pomeranians as a breed in 1898.

Are Pomeranians Listed as a Toy Dog Breed?

Yes, the American Kennel Club has characterized them under the toy dogs category. Dogs that have a small size are listed in this category. Other popular dogs that fall under the toy dogs are Chihuahua, Italian Greyhound, and Yorkshire Terrier.

Are Pomeranians Good Therapy Dogs?

Yes, Pomeranians are intelligent and smart which helps them be great therapy dogs. Poms have a loving and affectionate nature which allows them to provide emotional support to their family members.

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Contributing Author & Social Media Expert

Maryna is an animal expert that has had dozens of animals in her life over the years. She has never found an animal that she didn't love immediately. It seems like every year she finds kittens that have been abandoned by their mom and she nurses them to health and finds homes for them. She contributes her vast knowledge about animals and family pets to our website and we're forever grateful to have her working with us. She's also an amazing graphics designer and has designed all of the social media images that we use across all platforms.