two Pomeranians sitting together


Pomeranians are small dogs that are independent and always active. They are popularly called Poms. The Poms belong to the Spitz family that originated from the Arctic regions. They are the smallest among the Spitz. Though Poms are small they seem to have the personality of a large dog. They are not shy to bark or act aggressively with dogs much larger than their size.

Though they are stubborn, with training the Poms can become more comfortable meeting new people. They are the 24th most popular dog breed in America. They are alert and almost without fear which helps them be excellent watchdogs. As they are loving and affectionate with the owners, these dogs are also used as therapy dogs.

Pomeranian Information

  • Average Height: 6 to 12 inches
  • Average Length: 9.5 to 11 inches
  • Average Weight: 3 to 7 pounds
  • Coat Type: Long length
  • Coat Appearance: They have a double-coat with a thick, soft, and fluffy undercoat. The outer coat is long, straight, and has a dry texture
  • Coat Colors: Black and tan, blue brindle, chocolate, cream sable, and beaver
  • Grooming Needs: Medium
  • Shedding: Moderate Shedding
  • Brushing Requirements: They need to be brushed two times a week.
  • Sensitive to Touch: Moderate
  • Excessive Barking: Yes
  • Good tolerance to Heat and Cold: No, they are sensitive to heat.
  • Good Pet: Yes! They are quite friendly and prove to be good pets.
  • Safe with Children: Because of their small size they are not recommended for families with younger children
  • Good with Other Dogs: Moderate
  • Good with Other Pets: Moderate
  • Suitable to live in an Apartment: Yes
  • Suitable for First-Time Dog Owners: Yes but needs patience to be trained
  • Training: They are difficult to train and you need to be firm and consistent
  • Exercise Needs: Medium 
  • Weight Gain: Low
  • Health Concerns: Epilepsy, eye problems, hip dysplasia, Legg-Perthes disease, patellar luxation, collapsed trachea, and dental problems.
  • Allergies: They can suffer from contact and food allergies.
  • Average Life Span: 12 to 16 years

Physical Appearance of Pomeranian

Pomeranians have a compact and square body with a short back. They have a wedge-shaped head which somewhat resembles the face of a fox. Their chest is oval, tapering towards the elbow. The tail is fluffy and spreads straight and flat on the back.

They have a short and straight snout which is black. The ears are small and stand erect on the head. Poms have medium-sized, almond-shaped eyes that are black in color. 

The Pomeranians have a double coat that covers their body with a thick layer of hair. The undercoat is thick, soft, and fluffy while the outer coat is straight, long, and shiny. The coat on the leg and head is tight and shorter in length than the rest of the body. The Pomeranian’s coat around the neck and chest is long and fluffy.

Their coat can come in a variety of colors like black and tan, blue brindle, chocolate, cream sable, and beaver. These are just some of the common colors that they come in. Their coat can come in almost any color that you can imagine and the American Kennel Club (AKC) accepts all of them. The eyes and snout of all Pomeranians are black, except for Pomeranians with beaver, blue, and chocolate colored coats. Their eyes and snout have the same color as their fur.

Temperament of Pomeranian

a beautiful Pomeranian standing in the grass in the park

The Pomeranians are lively, playful, and loyal to their owners. Poms are also independent and intelligent, something which can be both good and bad depending on the situation. 

They are generally friendly with their family but can act aggressive with new people and other pets.  Though they are small, they have the personality of a big dog. This may sometimes make them act aggressively with larger dogs. Early socialization training is necessary to take care of this.

two Pomeranian dogs standing on a rock together

Pomeranians are also alert and always curious to know what is happening around them. This helps them to be great watchdogs. However, they can sometimes bark very loudly when they see strangers. You will have to train them to stop barking.

Training a Pomeranian

Poms are smart and intelligent which generally helps in training them. However, they can also act stubborn if not trained early on. Housetraining the Poms could be a challenge so kennel training is recommended. You need to be firm and consistent while training them. Given their stubborn personality, you will need a lot of patience.

These dogs have short attention spans. For this reason, you will have to keep the training sessions short and fun. You should provide treats and praise to your dog in between the training sessions. This will help to keep their focus on the training.

Train them on how to follow the basic commands like Sit, Stay and Come. Since they can sometimes bark loudly seeing strangers or other dogs, it is necessary to train them on how to become quiet. Teach them how to follow the Speak and Quiet commands.

You also need to train them on how to walk on a leash. As they are aggressive and curious you will have to keep them on a leash when you take them out for walks or to the park. 

Provide early socialization training to them. This will expose them to different sounds, experiences, people, and other dogs. It will help them to act less aggressively when interacting with other dogs and strangers when they grow up.

Their Compatibility with Children

The Poms are active and love to play. However, they are best suited for families that have older children. This is because older children are mature and capable of handling the Poms. Their small size may cause younger children to accidentally drop the Pomeranians and end up hurting them.

You should teach your kids how to interact with Poms. They should not disturb the Poms when they are eating because it can quickly lead to a bad situation with the kids. Always have an adult supervise the interaction between kids and Poms. This will prevent accidents from occurring.

Best Climate for Pomeranians

Pomeranians are more comfortable in cold than heat. Their thick coat allows them to stay outside for a few minutes even in snow. If the temperature is around 40 degrees, your Pom will not have a problem staying outside for up to 1 hour.  

As they are toy breeds and companion dogs, they are not considered outside dogs. They are comfortable living inside the home at room temperatures.

Poms are very sensitive to heat, and excessive heat and humidity can result in the Pom becoming overheated. This could even lead to heatstroke. You may need to turn on the air conditioner if the outside temperature gets too hot. They should always have access to water during the summers. This will help to keep them hydrated and cooler in the summer heat.

The Attention a Pomeranian Needs

Poms enjoy spending time with family members. They love being the center of attention. Frequent cuddles and lap time is what they crave. Teaching them new tricks and playing with them is a great way to bond with them.

These dogs are small but have lots of energy. They enjoy going for walks or playing with their owners. Exercising them daily will also help keep them in shape and maintain their physical and mental agility.
two Pomeranians sitting together

They love the company of family members and should not be left alone for a long time. This can cause separation anxiety in them.

Health Issues

Pomeranians can have a few health conditions. This includes dental conditions like teeth and gum problems. 

They can also have different types of eye problems like cataracts, dry eye, and tear duct problems. These diseases need to be treated early on, otherwise, it can lead to blindness. If you find excessive tearing, redness, or scarring in the eyes then you should immediately take them to the vet.

Hip Dysplasia is a common joint problem found in dogs including Pomeranians. This happens when the thigh bone is unable to attach itself properly with the hip joint. As Pomeranians are small they will usually be able to live a normal life even after having this disease. 

Legg-Perthes is another hip condition commonly found in small dog breeds. This happens when the blood supply to the femur is reduced. This causes the upper part of the femur that connects with the pelvis to disintegrate. It can result in limping which may need a surgery. 

Patellar Luxation is one more health condition that some Pomeranians can have. It happens when the knee joint slides in and out of place. This can be painful for some but most will be able to live normally even after having this condition.

Collapsed trachea is another condition that some Pomeranians can have. In this disease, the windpipe sometimes collapses easily. Possible signs of this disease are dry and chronic cough. It can also be caused by pulling the leash too hard. In addition to not using a choke collar, you should also be careful while walking them with a leash.

Other minor health conditions that they can suffer from are contact and food allergies. If your Pomeranian is frequently rubbing their face or licking the paws they could possibly be having an allergy. Get them checked with a vet to provide them necessary treatment.

Bathing, Coat, and Cleaning

Pomeranians have a thick and rich coat that needs moderate maintenance. They need to be brushed two times a week. You should use a wire slicker brush and a metal comb to gently clean their coat. This will help to pull the loose hair and also remove mats or tangles. As they have a double coat, you need to carefully brush them all the way down to the skin to remove the loose fur.

You can bathe them once a month or when required. Before bathing them you need to remove all the tangle and mats on their coat. Use only a high-quality dog shampoo and conditioner to bathe them. If you are using a bathtub make sure you keep the water below the knees, or they may get scared or irritated.  

Check their teeth often as they are prone to having dental problems. If you see any signs of plaque or smell any bad odors take them to the vet and have them checked for possible teeth or gum diseases.

Trim their nails once a week. This will help prevent damage to your floor, and make it easier for them to walk on hard surfaces. 

Check each week their ears, nose, and skin. If you find any signs of infection or redness take them to the vet and get them checked.

two beautiful Pomeranian puppies sitting together
a pile of multi colored dog food

Feeding A Pomeranian

The Pomeranians need ¼ to ½ cups of high-quality dog food in a day, divided into two meals. The exact amount of food that your Pom needs will depend upon how active your dog is. You can also feed dairy products like puppy milk, cheese, and yogurt to your Pom daily.

Normally they do not have a tendency to gain weight but you should always watch out for obesity. Since they have a small size, even small amounts of food can cause them to gain weight. For this reason, you should not serve them table scraps or people food. They can also develop food allergies by eating table scraps.

Exercise them daily for a few minutes to burn the extra fat and keep them in good shape.

Related Questions:

How did Pomeranians originate?

Pomeranians are named after the Pomerania region, an area in Northern Europe between Germany and northern Poland along the Baltic Sea. They trace their origins from the large working Wolfspitz dogs of Arctic regions. Pomeranians are descendants of the German Spitz dogs and have a long history of crossbreeding. The Pomeranians became popular in the 19th century when Queen Victoria exhibited them for the first time in 1861. The American Kennel Club (AKC) recognized the Pomeranians in 1898.

Do Pomeranians fall under toy dog breeds?

Yes, the American Kennel Club has characterized them under the toy dogs category. Dogs that have a small size are listed in this category. Other popular dogs that fall under the toy dogs are Chihuahua, Italian Greyhound, and Yorkshire Terrier.

Are Pomeranians good therapy dogs?

Yes, Pomeranians are intelligent and smart which helps them to become great therapy dogs. The Poms have a loving and have an affectionate nature which allows them to provide emotional support to the family members. They are small and can easily live in small apartments.

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